Net neutrality policy still up in the air under Trump

During his campaign, U.S. President Donald Trump called the Federal Communications Commission’s net neutrality rules a “top-down power grab,” leading many observers to expect a quick repeal.screen shot 2017 02 01 at 8.51.22 am

Trump’s presidency is still in its infancy and it’s unclear what his administration will do about the hot-button issue.

It’s difficult to determine what direction the unpredictable Trump administration will take, said Nathan White, senior legislative manager at Access Now, a digital rights group.

“The world is a very complicated place right now,” he said. “I don’t think we can get too far out front and predict the future.”

Ajit Pai, Trump’s pick for chairman of the FCC, has promised, however, to “fire up the weed whacker” and kill net neutrality and other regulations passed by the FCC during President Barack Obama’s administration.

But this week, Pai declined to outline a path forward on net neutrality, saying only that he continues to oppose the FCC’s 2015 decision to reclassify broadband as a regulated common carrier under Title II of the Telecommunications Act.

“We haven’t made any determinations at this time,” Pai said during a press conference Tuesday. “My position is pretty simple. I favor a free and open Internet and I oppose Title II. That’s pretty much all I can say about that topic.”

The Republican-controlled Congress may take a different path than a possible repeal of the rules at the FCC.

Lawmakers will likely push for legislation, similar to a proposal from early 2015, that would write basic net neutrality protections into law, Senator John Thune, the Republican chairman of the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, said recently. A law passed by Congress would supersede any actions taken at the FCC.

Even though the FCC may move to repeal its reclassification, Thune called for a bipartisan agreement on some baseline rules. A Republican-controlled FCC moving to repeal the net neutrality rules “may help inspire some of my Democrat colleagues to embrace the idea that a bipartisan, legislative solution is the best possible outcome,” he said in a Jan. 23 speech.

Internet companies and users need certainty about long-term rules that won’t change every time there’s a new party in power, Thune said.

“We need clear and reasonable rules for the digital road that Internet companies, broadband providers, and end users can easily understand,” he added. “Complex and ambiguous regulations that shift with the political winds aren’t in anyone’s best interest.”

It’s unclear, however, if Congress will have “the attention or the political will” to move forward with a bill, said Access Now’s White.

Meanwhile, supporters of strong net neutrality rules vow to fight any effort to repeal the rules and rescind the classification of broadband as a regulated service. About 4 million people submitted comments to the FCC during its recent net neutrality rulemaking proceeding, with the large majority favoring strong net neutrality rules, supporters noted.

Net neutrality advocates will look to fire up that crowd again if Pai or Trump move to kill the rules.

Without Title II authority for the rules, broadband providers may be able to change charge websites for paid traffic prioritization, said Holmes Wilson, co-founder of digital rights group Fight for the Future.

Recent court rulings were “pretty clear” that the FCC can’t ban paid prioritization without Title II authority, he said by email. “If they’re talking about reclassifying back out of Title II, people should see that as an underhanded way to kill net neutrality and give companies like Comcast free reign to shake down your favorite sites,” Wilson added.

Pai and the FCC would need to explain a major shift in policy two years after the FCC passed its rules, supporters of the regulations said.

“Chairman Pai’s FCC cannot move quickly to dismantle protections supported by the vast majority of the American people,” said Matt Wood, policy director at digital rights group Free Press. “While Pai’s boss, Donald Trump, may have little respect for the rule of law, administrative law still binds the FCC.”

Congress could pass legislation, but that’s not a given, Wood added. That’s “assuming this Congress can get anything done, unlike its recent do-nothing predecessors,” he said. “But the current rules are the common-sense floor for any new law, not the overreach that members of the current majority in Congress and the FCC preposterously make them out to be.”

 This article was updated to correct a typo in the quote from Holmes Wilson, co-founder of digital rights group Fight for the Future.

Samsung’s Tizen 4.0 OS is in development and due out in September

A new version of Samsung’s Tizen OS, version 4.0, is now under development for mobile devices, wearables and smart gadgets and is due for release in September.Samsung's Gear S3 Frontier

Tizen is mainly used in Samsung products. The release date of Tizen 4.0 is listed on the OS’s developer website, which also states that the first beta of the OS will come out in June.

The Tizen 4.0 release date is listed as part of the Tizen .NET roadmap. The page states that “the first official version of Tizen .NET will be released in September 2017 as a part of Tizen 4.0.”

The page went up recently, and an image detailing the roadmap seems to have  typographical errors. The chart is supposed to show a timeline for Tizen .NET releases extending into 2017, but the release date of Tizen 4.0 is listed for September 2016, in an apparent mistake.

Tizen is a competitor of iOS and Android, but has struggled. The OS is in a handful of Samsung smartphones in India, but the handsets are stuck at version 2.4.

Samsung’s smart TVs and smartwatches like Gear S3 also use Tizen. The OS will be used in the company’s home appliances, washing machines, and even vacuum cleaners.

Most of Samsung’s smartphones have Android today, but it is maintaining Tizen, as it doesn’t want to put all its eggs in one basket. Samsung is developing technology so its Android mobile devices, Windows PCs and Tizen devices can easily communicate with one another.

Tizen has also been ported to work on boards like Raspberry Pi and the Artik developer board.

Tizen may be Samsung’s ticket to success in the internet of things market, where competitive OSes include Google’s Android Things and Microsoft Windows 10 IoT Core. Tizen 3.0 already supports Open Connectivity Foundation’s emerging IoTivity protocol, designed for easy pairing of compatible devices.

Shipments of IoT devices will outstrip smartphones in the coming years, touching 30.7 billion by 2020, and 75.4 billion by 2025, according to IHS.

With Tizen 4.0 so close, Samsung is moving on quickly from Tizen 3.0, which hasn’t made it to many devices yet.

Tizen 3.0 was portrayed as a powerful 64-bit OS compatible with ARM and x86 processors, with support for 4K graphics and image and speech recognition. Samsung claimed Tizen 3.0 was 30 percent faster than Tizen 2.4.

Tizen 4.0 will have richer features and be faster than its predecessor. It’ll also be a beneficiary to Microsoft’s embrace of open-source technologies.

In November, Samsung announced a pact with Microsoft framed to allow .Net developers to easily write Tizen applications for mobile devices, smartwatches, smart TVs and IoT devices. Samsung is releasing previews of Tizen .NET to make that possible, and will bake a final version of related tools into Tizen 4.0.

The origins of Tizen date back to 2007, when Intel started developing the Linux-based Moblin OS. In 2010, Moblin was merged with Nokia’s Maemo into a new OS called Meego. That OS was then merged with LiMo to form Tizen. Tizen is considered Samsung’s OS, but the development is managed by the Linux Foundation.

Tim Cook: Apple may take legal action over immigration restrictions

After sending an email to employees expressing Apple’s opposition to the Trump administration’s new immigration restrictions, Apple CEO Tim Cook is now making a forceful stand.tim cook apple ceo

“More than any country in the world, this country is strong because of our immigrant background and our capacity and ability as people to welcome people from all kinds of backgrounds,” Cook told the Wall Street Journal. “That’s what makes us special. We ought to pause and really think deeply through that.”

Cook isn’t just vocally opposing the restrictions on refugees and immigrants from seven predominantly Muslim countries. Apple is also considering legal action. It’s unclear exactly what form that action would take, with Cook telling the WSJ that the company “wants to be constructive and productive.”

The executive order has directly affected Apple employees, who have reached out to Cook to share their stories and make sure Apple leadership is aware of the immigration ban’s real-world impact.

Other tech companies are also considering legal action or have already acted. Amazon is backing a lawsuit against the Trump administration brought by Washington State Attorney General Bob Ferguson, announced on Monday.

“This executive order is one we do not support,” Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos wrote in a letter to employees. “Our public policy team in D.C. has reached out to senior administration officials to make our opposition clear. We’ve also reached out to congressional leaders on both sides of the aisle to explore legislative options. Our legal team has prepared a declaration of support for the Washington State Attorney General who will be filing suit against the order. We are working other legal options as well.”

This story, “Tim Cook: Apple may take legal action over immigration restrictions” was originally published by Macworld.

AMD sets Ryzen CPUs up for a strong start in looming chip brawl with Intel

As a pesky underdog, AMD challenged Intel in chip innovation until the mid-2000s. AMD churned out innovations like dual-core and 64-bit chips, which kept Intel on its toes.ryzen new

But some disastrous technological and management decisions cost AMD dearly, and over time, buyers began to consider its processors inferior to Intel’s chips. Intel ran away with PC and server chip market share.

AMD now is looking to rally its dwindling fan base with a series of Zen-based chips this year for desktops, servers, and laptops. The hyped-up Zen chips are expected to be good, and even Intel readily acknowledges the stiff competition coming its way.

AMD promises that Zen chips will deliver a 40 percent improvement in instructions per cycle, an important metric for chip performance. That number is impressive, considering most chips based on a new architecture have typically boasted CPU improvements of up to 20 percent.

The expectations around Zen are high, and the likelihood of it being a flop is unlikely, said Dean McCarron, principal analyst at Mercury Research.

“If it shows well, we’ll be going back to 1997 or 2006 when AMD was competitive with Intel,” McCarron said.

If that doesn’t happen, it’ll likely be business as usual for AMD, McCarron said.

A strong start is important for AMD, and early adopters of Zen will be the committed user base of enthusiast and gamers who are AMD loyalists.

AMD ryzen pcs

AMD Ryzen PCs at CES 2017.

AMD’s first Zen-based Ryzen chips are coming in March to high-end desktops. Systems and motherboards will be available right away, Lisa Su, CEO of AMD, said during an earnings call.

The first Ryzen chips will initially compete with Intel chips like Core i5 and i7, Su said. Eventually, AMD will release a full complement of Ryzen chips to take on all Intel desktop chips.

“What we’ll see is some pent-up demand from them in the early launch,” McCarron said. Some AMD loyalists who held off PC purchases will quickly pick up Ryzen chips for gaming desktops.

Following the initial rush, the word-of-mouth on Ryzen will ultimately determine if Intel desktop users start moving over to AMD chips.

AMD is expecting quick returns on Ryzen chips as the gaming market is exploding, Su said. AMD also plans to release its Vega GPU in the second quarter for enthusiasts, and it could be paired up with Ryzen chips.

Most gaming machines today have Intel’s high-end Core chips. Gaming PC makers like Dell’s Alienware and Falcon Northwest are dedicated to Intel chips. But if there’s demand, those PC makers could offer Ryzen chips in gaming PCs.

amd 3

An AMD AM4 motherboard, which will house Ryzen and Raven Ridge chips.

In the second half of the year, AMD will release Zen chips, code-named Raven Ridge, for laptops. It’s more difficult to predict whether Zen will be a hit in laptops as pricing matters more than the components inside.

Raven Ridge’s success also depends on PC makers. If major brands don’t adopt the chips, AMD’s chances of success diminish, McCarron said.

PC makers haven’t publicly stated whether they will offer laptops with Raven Ridge chips, but a few will likely bite. HP, Dell, and Lenovo have been using AMD chips in more laptops and could be open to using Raven Ridge.

Raven Ridge is a strong product for high-end notebooks and 2-in-1s, but it could also be used in desktops, AMD’s Su said. Su didn’t share details about the GPU that will be integrated into Raven Ridge.

In between the desktop and laptop chips, AMD in the second quarter will ship the beefy Zen server processor code-named Naples, which will have up to 32 cores. The goal with Naples is to provide more threads, faster throughput, and more memory capacity in servers.

But AMD will be more conservative with Naples server chip shipments, partly because it’ll be more difficult to topple Intel, which has a commanding server chip market share of more than 90 percent.

amd am4 platform

Su indicated AMD may compete on chip pricing with Intel to gain server market share. It worked with AMD’s Opteron chips, which were considered a cheaper alternative to Xeon chips.

Zen-based chips for mobile devices like tablets and smartphones are not on the roadmap because the company is targeting higher-margin and higher-performance computing products.

In the longer-term roadmap, AMD is developing the Zen 2 and Zen 3 chips and is preparing to make chips using the 7-nanometer process. AMD has its chips made at GlobalFoundries, which has said it will make 7-nm chips by 2018. However, fab companies often don’t meet targets for mass volume chip shipments on a new process.

Last week, Intel announced it will establish a pilot factory for 7-nm chips. Intel is currently making chips at the 14-nm process but will ship its first 10-nm chips, code-named Cannonlake, by the end of the year. The 7-nm chips will follow 10-nm parts.

AMD has fine-tuning its operational and technical capabilities and has set itself up for a strong 2017, building on the success of GPUs like Polaris, Patrick Moorhead, principal analyst at Moor Insights and Strategy, said in a research note. Moorhead was formerly employed by AMD.

“It’s all up to AMD to flawlessly execute this year,” Moorhead said.

WhatsApp reduces spam, despite end-to-end encryption

Can a spam filter work even without reading the content of your messages?

WhatsApp thinks so. Since last April, the messenger app has been successfully fighting spam abuse, even as it’s been using end-to-end encryption.dsc05664

That encryption means that no one — not even WhatsApp — can read the content of your messages, except for the recipient.

More privacy, however, can raise issues about spam detection. If WhatsApp can’t scan your messages for suspicious content, say for advertisements peddling cheap Viagra, then how can it effectively filter them out?

“In reality, we actually haven’t seen this as a big problem,” WhatsApp software engineer Matt Jones said on Wednesday. “We actually reduced spam by about 75 percent from around the time that we launched end-to-end encryption.”

Its spam detection mechanisms work by looking at unusual behavior from users in real-time, Jones said while speaking at the USENIX Enigma 2017 conference.

For instance, WhatsApp will analyze how long a suspected spammer has been registered on WhatsApp or how many messages he has sent in the last 30 seconds.

To detect what activity is possibly malicious, WhatsApp has been studying the behavior of spammers who’ve already been banned on the platform, Jones said. That’s helped WhatsApp learned their tricks of the trade. So it’ll be on the lookout for telltale patterns, such as evidence a bad actor was running a computer script to send out a flood of WhatsApp messages.

The level of spam has fallen on WhatsApp since implementing end-to-end encryption.

The app is also looking at the “reputation” of the internet and mobile providers powering the suspected spammer’s messages, Jones said. That includes examining the network and the phone numbers to determine if WhatsApp has routinely blocked other spammers from related sources in the past.

In the fight against spam, WhatsApp also has a key advantage over platforms such as email. To register, users need to provide the app a phone number. That can be a hassle for spammers.

“If we make things expensive for [the spammers], their business model won’t work,” Jones said.

Improbable scenarios, such as a user with a U.S. phone number suddenly connecting to an internet network in India, will also set off alarms, Jones said. But the spam detection isn’t perfect, he said, and it will result in mistakes. For example, users who are traveling internationally might be flagged.

The messaging app also takes a strict stance on suspected offenders. Rather than try to filter out spam, it’ll block the account where the messages came from, Jones said.

For spammers, that means a quick boot from the service. But for legitimate users, it can mean being unfairly banned and filing an appeal. However, the messaging app has been introducing new measures to cut down the incorrect user bans, Jones said.

Google smooths Pixel audio issues with latest security patch, but it may limit the volume

If you’re one of the unlucky Pixel owners with audio distortion problems, relief may be on the way. Along with the usual vulnerability plugs, this month’s security patch includes a fix for the widespread issue, and many users have reported that the issue has indeed been cleared uppixel xl back.

First brought to light on Reddit and the Google+ Pixel User Community, the problem affected both models of the Pixel and mostly manifested at high volumes. Users complained of cracking and popping sounds when listening via any audio source  and the distortion was evident when using Google’s apps or third-party ones. Several users who received replacement Pixels encountered similar issues with their new phones, and on Jan. 17, Pixel community manager Orrin informed users that “this is a software issue that we are working to resolve in an upcoming update,” and suggested “to not play your device at max volume.”

According to several reports, it appears that Google has made good on its promise, but your phone might not play as loudly as it did before. Many affected Pixel users are now reporting that after installing the February OTA security patch, audio plays clearly, though maximum volume has been diminished somewhat. As Google+ user Francesco Chirico reported, “The issue is solved in my case with February security patch. I’m not sure that volume level is as high as before but in any case it seems a good volume level.”

However, other users say the hissing and popping persists even after the update. Additionally, the issue has not been cleared up for people running the 7.1.2 beta, though the next update will presumably include the same fix. To check to see if the patch has been installed, go to Settings, scroll down to About phone, and tap System updates.

 I haven’t experienced this issue with my Pixel phone, but it’s good to see Google giving it some attention. It’s taken a bit longer than some users would have liked , but it appears as though Google has isolated the issue and fixed it for the vast majority of users. It would be nice if the volume level could return at some point, but most users seem content with the tradeoff.

This story, “Google smooths Pixel audio issues with latest security patch, but it may limit the volume” was originally published by Greenbot.

Facebook’s Community Help lets you aid your neighbors in a crisis

Facebook is taking its Safety Check feature beyond the ability to just mark yourself and others as safe with a new addition called Community Help, which started rolling out Wednesday.

facebook logo largeFacebook first announced Community Help in November at the company’s Social Good Forum.s during a crisis. This can be food, a place to sleep, baby supplies, and other essential goods or services.


When Community Help is active users in the affected area will see a “Find Help” link on the Safety Check page for their particular crisis. Underneath that will also be a “Give Help” option for those who want to assist their neighbors.

Community Help will initially be available to users in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, and Saudi Arabia.

Community Help was inspired in part by Facebook users who were already banding together to offer each other help in times of need. The company says it also consulted experts and humanitarian relief organizations to develop the new feature.

As Community Help is part of Safety Check it will only be available in times of crisis, but the feature won’t show up for every emergency. Facebook says that it will only show up for accidental and natural disasters such as a flood or tornado. That may only be the beginning, however. The company says that as it learns from people using Community Help, Facebook will look to expand it to “additional types of incidents.”

Facebook extends lead as news gateway

According to the Pew Research Center 66 percent of Facebook users get news on the siteFacebook has become an important news source for close to half of American adults, a study showed Thursday amid increased scrutiny over the social network’s gateway role.

The Pew Research Center survey showed 62 percent of US adults get news on social media, and 18 percent do so often.

That shows a growing role for Facebook and other social networks as a news source. In 2012, based on a slightly different question, 49 percent of American adults reported seeing news on social media, Pew said.

According to the survey, 66 percent of Facebook users get news on the site, as did 59 percent of Twitter users and seven of 10 users of Reddit.

Because Facebook reaches some two-thirds of US adults, the survey indicates that 44 percent of the overall population gets at least some news through the leading social network.

The survey comes with Facebook defending itself against allegations that it suppressed some conservative news content in its “trending” topics.

Last week, Facebook said was unable to substantiate any specific accusations of bias, but announced it was updating guidelines to be clearer that content decisions may not be based on politics or ideology.

The news team will be subject to more oversight and controls, and Facebook will no longer rely on lists of external websites and news outlets to assess the importance of topics in stories.

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg met with a group of conservative political leaders and told them the network was “a platform for all ideas.”

Still, the row over the Facebook allegations has highlighted concerns that social media is increasingly becoming a gateway to news for many readers.

According to the new Pew study, users of Facebook YouTube and Instagram are more likely to get their news by chance, when they are online doing other things.

However, those who use Reddit, Twitter and LinkedIn often seek out news online as often as they stumble upon it.

In coordination with the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, Pew surveyed 4,654 American adults by mail and online from January 12 to February 8. The margin of error for the full group was estimated at 2.4 percentage points.

ISIS propaganda collected in real time

ISIS propaganda collected in real timeUniversity of Exeter experts will collect large amounts of propaganda put on the internet by Islamic State terrorists in real time to understand how it radicalises people.

The group is well-known for its use of social media to elicit fear and communicate and promote its ideology. Academics will harvest and analyse this content, and use this huge amount of information to understand more about the themes, issues and claims made by ISIS.

It is hoped the findings will strengthen the capabilities of UK intelligence services to combat propaganda initiatives of violent organisations.

Researchers involved in the study will conduct a large-scale, computer-assisted analysis of video and text. They hope to identify how ISIS’ online propaganda encourages individuals to commit to political extremism and violence.

Analysing the propaganda will allow academics to evaluate how ISIS’ online content makes use of polarizing language known to foster intergroup conflict. The academics will examine the language used and the structure of the propaganda to give a clear picture of the arguments made by ISIS in support of terrorism.

Their findings will be shared with policymakers. The study is led by Stephane Baele and Travis Coan from the Department of Politics, and Katharine Boyd from the Department of Sociology.

Dr Baele said: “We are thrilled that this CREST grant allows us to examine ISIS’ online propaganda. We are certainly not the first to work on this crucial issue, but our research has two unique aspects that will significantly enhance our understanding of this complex phenomenon.

“We will make use of powerful, computational techniques to detect, gather, and analyse this propaganda. We will also use our knowledge of cognition and perception to make sense of the data we collected. By combining rigorous methods and in-depth explanations, we ultimately hope to contribute to ongoing and future efforts to stop the appeal of violent organisations.”

This is one of a range of projects set up to address some of the security threats facing the UK funded by the Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST), which is led by Lancaster University.

Director of CREST, Professor Paul Taylor, said: “We were delighted with the outstanding response to our call. Standing out against stiff competition, the successful projects promise innovation, rigour, and results that will make a difference to how we understand and counter security threats. I am looking forward to working with them.”

Slap on the wrist: can new wearables help tackle problem drinking?

How many units of alcohol do you drink each week? It’s a question most people stumble over.

It’s not easy to monitor alcohol intake. So often a doctor asks and the patient tries to quickly calculate the recommended weekly units, before settling on a slightly lower figure. It’s an issue too for those who want to figure out whether they have reached drink-driving limits. But tech companies claim to have a solution to this problem.

The San Francisco-based BACtrack, for example, makes breathalysers for law enforcement agencies. But recently it won a $200,000 (£136,000) government prize for an alcohol-monitoring device of a different kind: one that users can apply to their bodies.

Skyn, BACtrack’s winning entry, looks like the sort of wristband runners wear to measure their speed and heartbeat – but it measures the body’s alcohol content. Three quarters of an hour after drinking, the Skyn’s wearer can see their blood alcohol content (BAC) on the wristband.

BACtrack Skyn device with app

The prototype device, which will be available at the end of the year and retail for $99 (£68), works by tracking ethanol molecules escaping through the skin. It’s intended for “serious use cases – people with a serious alcohol issue who could benefit from continuous, non-invasive monitoring,” says Keith Nothacker, BACtrack’s president and CEO.

“Having a low-cost, small, discreet, wearable can dramatically simplify treatment for millions of people … Imagine going out for drinks and your smart watch displaying your estimated BAC. No pausing to take a breath test – the result is just there, continuously.”

The competition won by Skyn was organised by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US. That a government agency is looking to incentivise alcohol-measuring gadgets suggests that the US government is trying to find new ways of preventing alcohol-related diseases, which cause about 88,000 deaths each year in the country.

It is also a nod to the fast-growing market for alcohol-measuring apps and gadgets. Among the many iPhone apps now available is IntelliDrink ($2.99/£2.29). Users enter the number of drinks they are consuming and the app calculates their BAC based on their age, weight, height, gender, drinking frequency and stomach contents. It can also be set to alert a friend when the user has reached a certain alcohol level.

Another iPhone app, R-U-Buzzed?, measures the user’s alcohol level using height and weight in addition to the amount of alcohol consumed, and flashes “You’re buzzed” when they reach the driving under the influence (DUI) level.

In Sweden, Alcosystems, a company working in collaboration with a teaching hospital has developed a wireless, fuel-cell powered breathalyser connected to an app, which recovering alcoholics are using several times a day to monitor their progress. The device is available for consumers and companies too. However, this is a relatively expensive option – while the app is £1.49, the breathalyser is €229 (£175).

The apps and gadgets form a useful new resource, says professor Eileen Kaner, chair of public health and primary care research at Newcastle University: “Many people drink heavily but don’t want to talk to their doctor about it. And a lot of patients worry about taking up too much of their doctor’s time trying to figure out how much they drink. Gadgets are useful in such cases.”

Indeed, many people consciously or unconsciously under-report their drinking in conversations with their doctor, and often have no way of backing up their self-reported drinking habits. “A product like BACtrack Skyn helps people become more aware of their alcohol consumption habits,” says Nothacker.

While apps and gadgets are no substitute for doctors and nurses, Kaner says they can help people find out more about their behaviour,. “A very small part of the population are alcoholics, but a much larger part are heavy drinkers. Tech solutions can help them address potential health problems before it’s too late.”

Some are more sceptical. “There’s no convincing evidence that tech gadgets are better than older techniques in changing behaviour,” says Professor Matt Field of the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies (UKCTAS) at the University of Liverpool. Besides, he adds, in most countries DIU levels are so low that it’s safer not to drink at all.